A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside and a base linked to a sugar and one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide.
A polymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides (as in DNA) is called a polynucleotide.
The unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication.
Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials.
The pyrimidines and purines determine the amount of hydrogen bonding which should occur between specific base pairs.
Pyrimidines are known as thymine and cytosine, Purines are known adenine and guanine in a DNA molecule.
DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.
The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information.
Under the genetic code, these RNA strands are translated to specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.
Within eukaryotic cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes.
For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs These two long strands entwine like vines, in the shape of a double helix.
The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of the molecule (which holds the chain together) and a nucleobase (which interacts with the other DNA strand in the helix).